Planetary Simulant Database: TJ-1/2 Tongji University

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Mineral Amount %
Olivne ?
Pyroxene ?
Plagioclase ?
Glass >30
Other ?

Bulk Chemistry

Oxide Wt.%
SiO2 47.70
TiO2 2.00
Al2O3 16.20
MnO 0.15
Fe2O3 10.75
MgO 5.04
CaO 8.21
Na2O 4.92
K2O 2.29
P2O5 0.58
BaO 0.06
SrO 0.09
LOI 0.92
Total 98.9

Physical Properties

Property Value
Median grain size 260 μm
Bulk density 1.36 g/cm3
Specific gravity 2.72
Internal friction angle 47.6°
Cohesion 0.86 kPa
Compression index 0.086
Simulant Name: TJ-1/2 Tongji University
Current Status: Unknown
Developed By: Tongji University, China
Available From: N/A
Publications: Jiang, M., L. Li, and Y. Sun (2012). Properties of TJ-1 Lunar Soil Simulant. Journal of Aerospace Engineering, 25, 463-469.

TJ-1 and -2 are general purpose simulants for lunar low-Ti mare soils, produced fairly recently by Tongji University in China. TJ-1 was designed to contain roughly the same minerals as mare materials, but more importantly to have a range of geotechnical parameters within the ranges of Apollo soil measurements. The simulant was derived from red volcanic ashes from Jilin Province, China.

To produce TJ-1, the raw materials were dried, crushed, and sieved to 7 different size fractions that were then iteratively mixed to achieve the correct geotechnical properties. TJ-2 was a variant spiked with silicon carbide to raise the specific gravity to 2.90.

In an earlier publication in 2010 it was stated that ~20 kg of TJ-1 was available to researchers for the cost of shipping, but it is not clear how much (if any) remains, or if more was produced.


Micrographs of the red ashes from which TJ-1/2 was derived, from Jiang et al. 2012:

Other Lunar Mare Simulants
ALS | ALRS-1 | BP-1 | CAS-1 | CLRS-1 | CSM-CL | CUG-1A | DNA-1 | FJS-1/2/3 | GSC-1 | JSC-1/1A/1AF/1AC/2A | KLS-1 | KOHLS-1/KAUMLS | Maryland-Sanders | MLS-1/1P | MKS-1 | NEU-1 | Oshima | TJ-1/2