Publications

Dr. Wright’s recent research is outlined below:

“Boy’s Club”: Examining Sexist Humor on Types of Sexism and Femininity Ideology Using Two Research Approaches

Dr. Wright and students Taylor DeFrancesco, Carissa Hamilton, and Natasha Vashist examined sexist humor and participants’ level of sexism and femininity ideology using two research approaches: (1) a quasi-experimental design in which participants were primed with sexist humor and (2) a correlational approach using content analysis to estimate exposure to sexist humor in media. It was hypothesized that exposure to sexist humor would influence viewer’s sexist views and femininity ideology. It was also hypothesized that the quasi-experimental design would yield confirmatory results of the initial hypothesis while the correlational design would not. Participants included 1,559 male and female college students who were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions (viewed sexist humor, viewed non-sexist humor, viewed no videos) and then answered questions related to sexism and femininity ideology followed by general demographic items and media viewing preferences. Results confirmed that the quasi-experimental design, in comparison to the correlational design, yielded more confirmatory results in that those exposed to sexist humor had higher scores on all outcome measures examined. Limitations of priming and content analysis are discussed as well as directions for future research in this area.

For further information please see the following article:

Wright, C. L., DeFrancesco, T., Hamilton, C., & Vashist, N. (in press). “Boy’s Club”: Examining Sexist Humor on Types of Sexism and Femininity Ideology Using Two Research Approaches. HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research.

“Get Lucky!” Sexual Content in Music Lyrics, Videos and Social Media and Sexual Cognitions and Risk among Emerging Adults in the USA and Australia

Dr. Wright and Dr. Rubin from the University of Newcastle collaborated to examine the relationship between sexual content in music and sexual cognitions and risk among emerging adults from both the USA and Australia. They examined music content in lyrics, videos, as well as social media posts of music artists on Facebook and Twitter using content analysis of the top artists rated by participants in the USA and Australia. It was hypothesized that there would be a positive association between sexual content in music (lyrics, videos, social media) and sexual cognitions and risk. Findings indicated variations in sexual content based on music genre and location and that music lyrics, videos, and social media posts of music artists all content forms of sexual content. Results from hierarchical regression analyses indicated that sexual lyrical content, sexual content in music videos, and sexual references in the social media posts of artists were related to negative sexual cognitions and the degree of sexual risk for both samples. While findings point to the direction of a universal impact of the association between sexual content in music and sexual cognitions and degree of sexual risk, they also highlight trends in these relationships across countries.

For further information please see the following article:

Wright, C. L., & Rubin, M. (2017). “Get lucky!” Sexual content in music lyrics, videos and social media and sexual cognitions and risk among emerging adults in the USA and Australia. Sex Education, 17, 41-56.

Time and money explain social class differences in students’ social integration at university

Dr. Rubin from the University of Newcastle in Australia and Dr. Wright collaborated to investigate two potential reasons for why working-class students tend to be less socially integrated at university than middle-class students. One potential reason is that working-class students may have fewer finances available to participate in social activities. A second potential reason is that working-class students tend to be older than middle-class students and, consequently, are likely to have more work and/or childcare commitments. These additional commitments may prevent them from attending campus which, in turn, reduces their opportunity for social integration. These predictions were confirmed among undergraduate students at an Australian university and a USA university. Strategies for increasing working-class students’ social integration at university are discussed.

For further information please see the following article:

Rubin, M., & Wright, C. L. (2017). Time and money explain social class differences in students’ social integration at university. Studies in Higher Education, 42,
315-330.

The Media Scapegoat and Mom’s Mouth: Influences on Swearing

Dr. Wright and student Jasmin Mokbel examined the relationship between swearing acceptance and media and family influences by assessing 763 male and female college students. Participants completed an online questionnaire and answered a series of questions related to their personality characteristics, religiosity, and swearing histories and attitudes. Participants reported being most frequently exposed to swearing from their mothers followed by media sources. Swearing acceptance varied as a function of the Big Five personality characteristics as well as religiosity. The extent to which media and family influences related to swearing acceptance through potential mediating factors of personality characteristics and religiosity was assessed with structural equation modeling. Overall, the model was able to explain some of the relationship between media and family influences and the swearing acceptance of participants.

Jasmin’s original Honors in the Major Thesis was presented at the WRUS, SURE, and APS. Jasmin graduated from UCF in Spring of 2013 and was accepted into the Master’s program in mental health counseling at Nova Southeastern University.

For further information please see the following article:

Wright, C. L., & Mokbel, J. (2016). The Media Scapegoat and Mom’s Mouth: Influences on Swearing. Sage OPEN, DOI: 10.1177/2158244016651911

Music as a Mediator between Ethnicity and Substance Use among College Students 

Dr. Wright and student Deedra DeKemper examined the relationship between substance use references contained in music lyrics and videos and the attitudes and behaviors regarding substance use of White non-Hispanic, African American, and Hispanic emerging adults by assessing 425 male and female college students. It was hypothesized that there would be ethnic variations in perceived harm from substance use and reported recent substance use and that exposure to substance use references contained in music could mediate this relationship. Results confirmed ethnic differences in perceived risk associated with substance use as well as reported substance use. White non-Hispanic college students reported the least perceived risk and the most substance use while African American college students reported the most perceived risk associated with substance use and the least amount of reported substance use. Results of the Test of Joint Significance confirmed the mediational model in that participant ethnicity was associated with exposure to substance use references in music lyrics and music videos. Substance use references in music lyrics, then, was able to predict actual reported substance use of participants but not perceived risk associated with substance use.

Deedra’s original Honors in the Major Thesis was the recipient of the HIM Scholarship. Deedra also presented the findings of her thesis for presentation at the APS. Deedra graduated from UCF in the spring of 2014.

For further information please see the following article:

Wright, C. L., & DeKemper, D. (2016). Music as a mediator between ethnicity and substance use in college students. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse.

Music’s Influence on Risky Sexual Behaviors: Examining the Cultivation Theory

Dr. Wright and student Michelle Craske examined the relationship between sexual content Image for websitein music lyrics and music videos and the sexual behaviors of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic emerging adults from a cultivation framework by assessing 715 male and female college students. It was hypothesized that there would be a negative association between sexual content in music and sexual behaviors and that the cultivation framework could be used to partially explain these findings. Findings indicated variations in sexual behaviors based on participant race/ethnicity. Results from hierarchical regression analyses indicated that sexual lyrical content and sexual content in music videos, along with participant gender and race/ethnicity, are correlated with the dating and sexual behaviors of participants. A series of repeated measures analysis of variances were conducted to assess the extent to which the cultivation framework can explain the risky sexual behaviors of participants.

Michelle’s original Honors in the Major Thesis was the recipient of the HIM Scholarship and won 2nd place in the social sciences division of the SURE conference. Michelle also presented the findings of her thesis for presentation at the APS. Michelle graduated from UCF in the spring of 2014 and is currently a graduate student in sociology.

For further information please see the following article:

Wright, C. L., & Craske, M. (2015). Music’s Influence on Risky Sexual Behaviors: Examining the Cultivation Theory. Media Psychology Review. Vol. 9 (1)

The Relationship between Sexual Content in Music and Dating and Sexual Behaviors of Emerging Adults

Dr. Wright and student Erum Qureshi examined the relationship between sexual content in music lyrics, music videos, and the public image of popular music artists and the sexual behaviors of emerging adults. It was hypothesized these three avenues of music exposure would contain messages regarding risky sexual behaviors and that those who were exposed to these three avenues of music would report engaging in sexual activity at an earlier age and have an increased number of dating and sexual partners compared to those who were not as involved with popular music. Participants included 729 male and female college students who listened to rap, R&B, pop, rock, and country music genres. Findings indicated variations in sexual content based on music genre and that the three avenues of music exposure all contain sexual content. Results also indicated that sexual lyrical content, sexual content in music videos, and sexual references of popular music artists are associated with risky sexual behaviors.

Erum’s original Honors in the Major Thesis was the recipient of the Burnett Research Scholars Grant. Erum also presented the findings of her thesis for presentation at the APS. Erum graduated from UCF in the spring of 2013 and is currently a graduate student in the Counseling program at UCF.

For further information please see the following article:

Wright, C. L., & Qureshi, E. (2015). The relationship between sexual content in music and dating and sexual behaviors of emerging adults. The Howard Journal of Communications, 26, 227-253.

Music’s Dual Influence on Dyadic Behaviors

Dr. Wright and student Jessica Brandt conducted a follow-up analysis on Jessica’s HIM Musicthesis, which focused on music influences on the sexualization of women. Follow-up analyses tested a mechanism through which music serves as a model of intimate relationship behaviors for those from non-continuously intact homes, which was a suggestion for future research in the original thesis. It was theorized that music would both mediate and moderate the relationship between family structure and risky sexual behaviors. The subset of participants analyzed included 357 emerging adults who came from intact (married) and non-continuously intact (divorced, reconstituted, never married) households. Results of hierarchical regression analyses confirmed that sexual lyrical content serves as a moderator between family structure and sexual behaviors of those from non-continuously intact homes. A Test of Joint Significance established the mediational influence of music in that sexual lyrical content in music influenced the sexual attitudes of participants, which, in turn, influenced their sexual behaviors.

Jessica’s original Honors in the Major Thesis was the recipient of the Burnett Research Scholars Grant in addition to the highly competitive HIM Scholarship. Jessica has submitted the findings of her thesis for presentation at the APA and results from the follow-up analyses have been submitted for presentation at the APS. Jessica graduated from UCF in the fall of 2013.

For further information please see the following article:

Wright, C. L., & Brandt, J. (2015). Music’s Dual Influence on Dyadic Behaviors. Marriage & Family Review, 51,  544-563.

Age Differences Explain Social Class Differences in Students’ Friendship at University: Implications for Transition and Retention

Dr. Rubin from the University of Newcastle in Australia and Dr. Wright collaborated to test the hypotheses that working-class students have fewer friends at university than middle-class students and that this social class difference occurs because working-class students tend to be older than middle-class students. A sample of 376 first-year undergraduate students from an Australian university completed an online survey that contained measures of social class and age as well as quality and quantity of actual and desired friendship at university. Consistent with predictions, age differences significantly mediated social class differences in friendship. Potential policy implications for improving working-class students’ level of friendship at university are discussed, and implications for student transition and retention are considered.

For further information please see the following article:

Rubin, M., & Wright, C. L. (2015). Age differences explain social class differences in students’ friendship at university: Implications for transition and retention. Higher Education, 70, 427-439. doi: 10.1007/s10734-014-9844-8

Sexual Behaviors of Hispanic Emerging Adults: Examining the Immigrant Paradox

This study examined the immigrant paradox regarding risky sexual behaviors of Hispanic emerging adults from a social learning perspective. It was theorized that the immigrant paradox could partially be explained by the influence of music lyrical content. Participants included Hispanic emerging adults from South America, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Central America, and Mexico. Results indicated that Hip Hop music contained more references to sexual content than R&B and Pop music genres. Male participants engaged in unsupervised dating activities earlier than female participants. However, females reported more dating partners than males. Results from hierarchical regression analyses confirmed that lyrical content in music could partially explain the sexual behaviors of Hispanic emerging adults.

For further information please see the following article:

Wright, C. L. (2014). Sexual behaviors of Hispanic emerging adults: Examining the immigrant paradox. Marriage & Family Review, 50,246-268.

Parental Absence, Academic Competence, and Expectations in Latino Immigrant Youth

Dr. Wright’s Dissertation was awarded the Dissertation Year Fellowship Award from Florida International University in 2010 and was recently accepted for publication in the Journal of Family Issues. With the guidance of Dr. Mary Levitt, Professor and then Chair of the Psychology department at Florida International University, the investigation examined academic outcomes as a function of parental absence among newly immigrant Latino youth from Argentina, Cuba, and Columbia, specifically focusing on parental absence as a result of serial migration.

Participants who experienced parental absence reported lower achievement expectations. Additionally, parental death, prolonged parental absence, and serial migration negatively impacted the academic competence and expectations of students. The extent to which parental absence related to competence and expectations through potential mediating factors was assessed with structural equation modeling. Results indicated that the effects of parental absence on academic competence and expectations was mediated through economic hardship, school support, and parental involvement.

In focusing on the effects of parental absence on immigrant children and adolescents, Dr. Wright’s dissertation research bridged two bodies of research, one on the general effects of parent absence and single parenthood on academic outcomes and the other on the academic achievement of Latino immigrant students. The study identified economic hardship and school support as key mediators of the effects of parental absence on academic competence and expectations.  It also revealed that the commonly experienced absence of a parent, or both parents, as a consequence of migration is linked to academic outcomes, especially for pre-adolescents. This information should be helpful to those involved in the education of immigrant students and has broad significance, given that immigrants from Latino countries are currently the fastest growing immigrant population in the U.S.

For further information please see the following article:

Wright, C. L., & Levitt, M. J. (2014). Parental Absence, Academic Competence, and Expectations in Latino Immigrant Youth. Journal of Family Issues, 35, 1754-1779.

Family Structure and Music as a Model of Dyadic Behavior

This is Dr. Wright’s first published article based on research conducted as part of the MM Lab. This study theorized that adult children from non-continuously intact family structures (e.g., divorced, never married, re-married) seek models of dyadic behaviors outside of their home because their family structure lacks the necessary context from which to learn how to behave in a romantic relationship. This research tested the prediction in two separate studies. In both studies, participants from non-continuously intact homes reported risky sexual behaviors and sexual lyrical content in popular music was able to partially explain the sexual behaviors of participants from divorced, reconstituted families, and never married homes. Based on social learning theory, this study concluded that those from non-continuously intact homes seek models of how to behave in romantic relationships from popular music, rather than their family structure.

For further information please see the following article:

Wright, C. L. (2013). Family Structure and Music as a Model of Dyadic Behavior. Marriage & Family Review, 49, 309-329.

Dating Behavior Variations in Central American, Cuban, and South American College Students

Dr. Wright has examined the influence of geographical region, generational status, and gender on the dating behaviors of Latino college students from Central America, Cuba,

and South America. The main premise was that using the term ‘Latino’ to examine immigrants from over 20 different Latin-American countries was not sufficient in drawing conclusions regarding these groups.

Dr. Wright found significant differences in the dating behaviors of participants. Those from Central America began dating later than those from Cuba and South America. Variations in age when parents allowed dating was accounted for by geographic region, gender of the child, and generational status. There was a gendered difference in age at first date in that males went on their first date earlier than females. Age at first date was also predicted by when parents first allowed dating.  Age at first sexual encounter was impacted by geographic region, age when parents first allowed dating, and age at first date. This study demonstrates the need to examine Latino immigrants by geographical region instead of grouping immigrants from over 20 different countries under the term ‘Latino.’

This study was just published in a journal housed in Brazil and was translated and published in three different languages.

For further information please see the following article:

Wright, C. L. (2013). Dating Behavior Variations in Central American, Cuban, and South American College Students.  Revista Latino-Americana de Geografia e Gênero (Latin-American Journal of Geography and Gender), 4, 86-102.

The English version of the article can be accessed here.

So Many Theories, So Little Time: An Examination of Theories on the Intergenerational Transmission of Relationship Instability

Because there are so many theories used to explain the intergenerational transmission of relationship instability, Dr. Wright tested four of these theories among emerging adults from intact and divorced homes. The theories were also examined based on racial and ethnic background of participants.

Evolutionary theory proved to be the best explanation as it was able to explain relationship
behaviors when examining all participants simultaneously, and some behaviors when examining participants separately. Life-course adversity and father-absent theory were able to explain early reproductive behaviors among White participants. For Black participants, age at first boy/girlfriend could be explained by social-learning, life-course adversity, and father-absent theory. None of the theories examined were able to explain the relationship behaviors of Hispanic participants.

This research is important because it demonstrates the usefulness of theoretical perspectives. Some theories may best explain the behaviors of White, while other theories are better able to explain the behaviors of African-Americans.

For further information please see the following article:

Wright, C. L. (2011). So many theories, so little time: An examination of theories on the intergenerational transmission of relationship instability. Marriage & Family Review, 47, 235-263.

Intimate Relationship Behaviors of Cuban Male College Students

Dr. Wright has also examined influence of acculturation and religiosity on the intimate relationship behaviors of Cuban males. While research has examined the intimate relationships of Latinos, little research has isolated Cuban males for further investigation.

Cuban males whose parents allowed them to date at an early age, went on their first date and had their first girlfriend similar to the age when parents allowed dating, and had their first sexual encounter within three years of dating initiation. Religiosity impacted when parents allowed dating and first sexual encounter of youth. Acculturation impacted
age at initial dating, first girlfriend, and first sexual encounter. Cuban males who were less acculturated to American society were at an increased risk of early dating behaviors and early sexual activity.

For further information please see the following article:

Wright, C. L. (2011). Intimate Relationship Behaviors of Cuban Male College Students. Journal of Men, Masculinity, and Spirituality, 5, 97-113.

Family Structure Variations and Intimate Relationships in Adult Children

Dr. Wright’s first published article examined the dating behaviors and relationship attitudes among emerging adults from continuously intact families, terminated parental cohabiting unions, and divorced homes. Results indicated that those from terminated parental cohabitating unions and divorced homes differed in their experience with parental absence. Differences were also found across all three groups for dating behaviors and relationship attitudes.

Participants from cohabiting unions were the youngest at their first crush, had more dating partners, more cohabiting relationships, more of a desire to end their current relationship, more positive attitudes about cohabitation and out-of-wedlock births, and more negative attitudes regarding marriage than the other two groups. Results also indicated that gender, racial identification, length of father absence, and amount of father involvement was predictive of dating behaviors and relationship attitudes for those from parental cohabiting unions.

For further information please see the following article:

Wright, C. L. (2010). Family Structure Variations and Intimate Relationships in Adult Children.  The New School Psychology Bulletin, 8, 16-29.

All content Copyright © 2011 Media & Migration Lab, Dr. Chrysalis Wright