People » Stephen Kuebler

Research in the Stephen Kuebler lab is geared toward the discovery and development of new materials and processes for photonic applications. Of particular interest are methods for patterning materials on nanometer and micrometer length scales, techniques for three-dimensional nano- and micro-fabrication, and the development of new nano-composite materials having useful optical and electronic function. The nano/micro-patterning methods we are developing should find broad application in several areas of science and technology, including the development of new composite optical materials, fabrication methods and materials for micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), micro-optical systems, and biological sensors. One approach being explored is multi-photon three-dimensional microfabrication (3DM). 3DM is a photolithographic technique that enables topologically complex 3D micro-structures to be serially-patterned in a single exposure step. 3DM is well suited for rapid direct manufacture of micron-scale structures, such as MEMS, micro-fluidics, and micro-optical components. Multi-photon 3DM has been used to fabricate a wide range of complex 3D micro-structures. We are currently pursuing several research avenues that will greatly expand the utility of the approach as a manufacturing tool for nano- and micro-fabrication. These materials should form the basis for a new generation of MEMS, microfluidics, and nanophotonic devices. We have recently developed a unique concept-to-product instrument interface for multi-photon 3DM. The system allows us to design a target micro-structure using industry-standard CAD software and then directly fabricate the structure under automated computer control. We plan to investigate different fabrication-path processes and study how these affect structure integrity, fidelity, and the mechanical properties. For more information, please visit our research group’s home page at

December, 2009: Teaching Incentive Program Awards 2008-2009 recipient: Stephen Kuebler February, 2008: Dr. Stephen M. Kuebler was awarded a CAREER Grant by the National Science Foundation. This award (no. 0748712) is supported jointly by the Division of Materials Research and the Chemistry Division of the Mathematical and Physical Sciences Directorate. The award, entitled “CAREER: Three-Dimensional Multi-Scale Metallodielectric Materials”, provides support over a period of five years for the investigation of new processes for creating optically functional three-dimensional metallo-dielectric meta-materials. September, 2006: Dr. Stephen Kuebler’s research group has developed a new approach for fabricating three-dimensional metal-polymer composite micro-structures. The approach opens new routes to photonic materials and devices with novel optical properties. This research was featured on the Aug. 2006 cover of “Advanced Functional Materials”. To learn more about the Kuebler group, go to their home page at December, 2005: 2005 Outstanding Four Year College Teacher Award , Orlando Chapter of the American Chemical Society.

  1. T. Rios-Carvajal, C. A. Sierra*, and S. M. Kuebler. “Synthesis of novel phenylenevinylene linkers with electron-donating substituents by the Heck reaction,” Synth. Metals, 2015, 183-187 (
  2. R. C. Rumpf*, J. J. Pazos, J. L. Digaum, S. M. Kuebler. “Spatially-variant periodic structures in electromagnetics.” Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. A. 2015, 373, 20140359-1 – 20140359-22 (
  3. J. L. Digaum, J. J. Pazos, J. Chiles, J. D’ Archangel, G. Padilla, A. Tatulian, R. C. Rumpf, S. Fathpour, G. D. Boreman and S. M. Kuebler*. “Tight control of light beams in photonic crystals with spatially-variant lattice orientation.” Opt. Express, 2014, 22(21), 25788 – 25804.
  4. S. M. Kuebler*, D. A. Narayanan, D. E. Karas and K. M. Wilburn. “Low-distortion surface functionalization of polymeric microstructures.” Macromolec. Chem. Phys. 2014, 215(16), 1533- 1542. This work was featured on the journal’s cover.
  5. C. J. Clukay, C. N. Grabill, M. A. Hettinger, A. Dutta, D. J. Freppon, A. Robledo, H. Heinrich, A. Bhattacharya, S. M. Kuebler*. “Controlling formation of gold nanoparticles generated in situ at a polymeric surface.” Appl. Surf. Sci., 2014, 292, 128-136.
  6. Z. Luo and S. M. Kuebler*. “Axial superresolution of focused radially polarized light using diffractive optical elements.” Opt. Commun., 2014, 315, 176-182.
  7. A. Dutta, C. J. Clukay, C. N. Grabill, B. Yuan, D. J. Freppon, A. Bhattacharya, S. M. Kuebler, H. Heinrich*. “Nanoscale characterization of gold nanoparticles for electroless deposition on polymeric surfaces.” J. Microscopy, 2013, 251, 27-34.
  8. H. E. Williams, Z. Luo, S. M. Kuebler*. “Effect of refractive index mismatch on multi-photon direct laser writing.” Opt. Express, 2012, 20, 25030-25040.
  9. S. M. Kuebler*, H. E. Williams, D. J. Freppon, R. C. Rumpf, M. A. Melino. “Creation of threedimensional micro-photonic structures on the end-face of optical fibers.” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 2012, 7, 293 – 298.
  10. D. Restrepo, K. E. Lynch, K. Giesler, S. M. Kuebler, and R. Blair*. “Low-temperature (210 ºC) deposition of crystalline germanium via in situ disproportionation of GeI2.” Mater. Res. Bull., 2012, 47, 3484-3488.

Research activities in the Kuebler group span a range of fields including chemistry, materials science, optical science, microfabrication technology, and bio-related fields. The research provides a rich context for truly interdisciplinary training of scientists at all levels. Students trained in my group will understand their chosen field of study in depth and yet also possess a range of experiences and knowledge that equip them for tackling future technological challenges in industry, academics, and government research. Graduate students will develop skills in chemistry, polymer science, materials science, photochemistry, photophysics, lasers, nonlinear optics, electronics and instrument design. Professionals offering these types of skills are needed to support expansion of the high-tech sector of our economy and the development of emerging technologies, such as nano-science and engineering.

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