Planetary Simulant Database: CAS-1 Chinese Academy of Sciences

← Return to simulant listing


The following mineralogy was reported as a CIPW norm in Zheng et al. 2009, and does not account for the glass content (20-40%).

Mineral Volume %
Anorthite 56.28
Hypersthene 14.6
Olivine 8.18
Diopside 7.74
Orthoclase 7.24
Magnetite 3.03
Ilmenite 2.33
Apatite 0.65

Bulk Chemistry

Oxide Wt.%
SiO2 49.24
TiO2 1.91
Al2O3 15.80
FeO 11.47
MnO 0.14
MgO 8.72
CaO 7.25
Na2O 3.08
K2O 1.03
P2O5 0.3
LOI 0.52
Total 99.46

Physical Properties

Property Value
Mean grain size 85.9 μm
Internal friction angle 33.3°
Cohesion 1.0 kPa
Simulant Name: CAS-1 Chinese Academy of Sciences
Current Status: Unknown
Developed By: Chinese Academy of Sciences
Available From: N/A
Publications: Zheng, Y. et al. (2009), CAS-1 lunar soil simulant. Advances in Space Research, 43, 448-454.

CAS-1 is a general purpose, lunar low-Ti mare simulant designed to match the mineralogy and chemistry of Apollo 14 regolith samples. It is composed of scoria from a 2 m-thick layer of Sihai pyroclastics (Jinlongdingzi Volcano, Jilin Province, China).

The scoria is about 50% porous and consists of ~20-40% glass, and crystalline pyroxene, olivine and plagioclase. This scoria was ground and mixed to produce the CAS-1 simulant, giving it a particle size distribution consistent with Apollo 14/15 soils.

CAS-1 seems to have been somewhat widely used by China’s Lunar Exploration Program, but the amount produced and its current status is unknown.

Other Lunar Mare Simulants
ALS | ALRS-1 | BP-1 | CAS-1 | CLRS-1 | CSM-CL | CUG-1A | DNA-1 | FJS-1/2/3 | GSC-1 | JSC-1/1A/1AF/1AC/2A | KLS-1 | KOHLS-1/KAUMLS | Maryland-Sanders | MLS-1/1P | MKS-1 | NEU-1 | Oshima | TJ-1/2