Planetary Simulant Database: KLS-1 Korea Lunar Simulant

← Return to simulant listing


No data available

Bulk Chemistry

Oxide Wt.%
SiO2 48.00
TiO2 1.67
Al2O3 15.30
FeO 6.64
Fe2O3 4.75
MgO 9.64
CaO 8.38
Na2O 3.42
K2O 1.52
MnO 0.17
P2O5 0.33
S 0.01
Total 99.83

Physical Properties

Property Value
Specific gravity 2.9
Internal friction angle 44.91°
Cohesion 1.85 kPa
Recompression index 0.0043
Simulant Name: KLS-1 Korea Lunar Simulant
Current Status: In production
Developed By: Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology
Available From: N/A
Publications: Ryu, B.-H., C.-C. Wang, and I. Chang (2018), Development and Geotechnical Engineering Properties of KLS-1 Lunar Simulant. Journal of Aerospace Engineering, 31, 04017083.

KLS-1 is a low-Ti mare simulant developed at the Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology. This simulant uses an instrusive basaltic material from Cheorwon, after sampling a number of basalts throughout Korea to choose the best one based on chemistry. Apollo 14 sample 14163 was used as a reference.

The raw basalt was powdered and sieved to a number of size fractions, then re-combined to achieve an accurate particle size distribution. Ryu et al. (2018) claim that this size distribution is more accurate than JSC-1 and FJS-1.

Ryu et al. also cite the cost effectiveness of KLS-1, and describe plans to scale up with capacities of 1 ton per 8 hours. It isn’t clear if KLS-1 is yet available to the community or what the timescale of production is.


Photograph and SEM image of the KLS-1 simulant from Ryu et al. 2018:

Other Lunar Mare Simulants
ALS | ALRS-1 | BP-1 | CAS-1 | CLRS-1 | CSM-CL | CUG-1A | DNA-1 | FJS-1/2/3 | GSC-1 | JSC-1/1A/1AF/1AC/2A | KLS-1 | KOHLS-1/KAUMLS | Maryland-Sanders | MLS-1/1P | MKS-1 | NEU-1 | Oshima | TJ-1/2