Planetary Simulant Database: MGS-1 Mars Global Simulant

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Mineralogy

Mineral Wt.%
Plagioclase 27.1
Basaltic glass 22.9
Pyroxene 20.3
Olivine 13.7
Mg-sulfate 4.0
Ferrihydrite 3.5
Hydrated silica 3.0
Magnetite 1.9
Anhydrite 1.7
Fe-carbonate 1.4
Hematite 0.5

Bulk Chemistry

Because MGS-1 is a mineralogical standard, the bulk chemistry of simulants created from the standard will differ depending on the crystal chemistry of the source minerals used. Below, we have calculated an estimated chemistry using idealized mineral formulas, and the crystal chemistries for plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine measured from Rocknest.

Oxide Wt.%
SiO2 46.5
TiO2 0.2
Al2O3 9.6
Cr2O3 0.1
FeOT 17.8
MnO 0.2
MgO 12.2
CaO 7.0
Na2O 2.6
K2O 0.1
P2O5 0.2
SO3 3.7
Cl 0.0
Total 100.0

Physical Properties

No data available

Simulant Name: MGS-1 Mars Global Simulant
Current Status: Limited production
Developed By: University of Central Florida
Available From: CLASS Exolith Lab
Spec Sheet: MGS-1 Spec Sheet
Publications: Cannon, K. M., D. T. Britt, T. M. Smith, R. F. Fritsche, and D. Batcheldor (2019), Mars Global Simulant MGS-1: A Rocknest-based Open Standard for Basaltic Martian Regolith Simulants. Icarus, 317, 470-478.

Mars Global Simulant (MGS-1) is a mineralogical standard for basaltic soils on Mars, developed based on quantitative mineralogy from the MSL Curiosity rover. It is designed to replicate the Rocknest windblown soil, that is chemically similar to other basaltic soils at disparate landing sites and thus constitutes a “global” basaltic soil composition. MGS-1 is made by sourcing individual minerals, including a proper treatment of the X-ray amorphous component. This is in contrast to previous Mars simulants that were usually sourced from a single terrestrial deposit (basalt or palagonite).

Modified versions include MGS-1S Sulfate ISRU and MGS-1C Clay ISRU, specifically designed for water extraction applications. The root MGS-1 simulant is appropriate to test water extraction from bulk regolith.

The mineral recipe and production methods are available for anyone to reproduce and modify MGS-1 based simulants as they see fit. We are distributing MGS-1 through the CLASS Exolith Lab.

Images

Photograph of an MGS-1 prototype:

MAHLI image of the Rocknest soil (credit NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS):

Other Martian Simulants
ES-X | JMSS-1 | JSC Mars-1/1A | KMS-1 | MGS-1 | MMS | MMS-1/2 | Salten Skov 1 | UC Mars1 | UF Acid-Alkaline-Salt